Msa

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Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Speech Oral/motor programming (praxis)

Neuromuscular Execution

Language

Presence of nonverbal orofacial apraxia or apraxia of speech is commonly reported. Apraxia of speech often presents concurrently with orofacial apraxia, whereas orofacial apraxia may occur singly.

Dysarthria is commonly reported with primarily hypokinetic and spastic features. Dysarthria severity has not been found to correlate with disease duration.

Aphasia present in approximately one third to one half of cases, of mild to moderate severity, and characterized primarily by anomic or non-fluent features. Yes/no reversals may be present.

Predominantly receptive aphasic disturbances are atypical.

Nonverbal orofacial apraxia or apraxia of speech is atypical.

Dysarthria is commonly reported with primarily hypokinetic and spastic components. Ataxic and hyperkinetic features are less common.

Classic aphasias are atypical. Dynamic aphasia is a common presenting feature. Slowed information processing, reduced verbal fluency, and word retrieval deficit may also be present.

Rare

Rare

Dysarthria is very common, with hypokinetic predominating in MSA-P, and ataxic predominating in MSA-C. Spastic, hyperkinetic, and flaccid types may also occur.

Aphasia not expected. Dementia, when present, can affect communication ability.

Dysarthria (hypokinetic) probably common, but not early in course of disease.

Aphasia is uncommon/ rare as an isolated or dominant deficit. Semantic deficits often present but embedded within other cognitive impairments (e.g., visuoperceptual, working memory and attention deficits, fluctuating attention).

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