Axial Region

The axial region consists of the head, neck (cervical2 region), and trunk. The trunk is further divided into the

2cervic = neck thoracic region above the diaphragm and the abdominal region below it.

One way of referring to the locations of abdominal structures is to divide the region into quadrants. Two perpendicular lines intersecting at the umbilicus (navel) divide the abdomen into a right upper quadrant (RUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), and left lower quadrant (LLQ) (fig. A.6a, b). The quadrant scheme is often used to describe the site of an abdominal pain or abnormality.

The abdomen also can be divided into nine regions defined by four lines that intersect like a tic-tac-toe grid (fig. A.6c, d). Each vertical line is called a midclavicular line because it passes through the midpoint of the clavicle (collarbone). The superior horizontal line is called the subcostal3 line because it connects the inferior borders of the lowest costal cartilages (cartilage connecting the tenth rib on each side to the inferior end of the sternum). The inferior horizontal line is called the intertubercular4 line because it passes from left to right between the tubercles (anterior superior spines) of the pelvis—two points of bone located about where the front pockets open on most pants. The three lateral regions of this grid, from upper to lower, are the hypochondriac,5 lateral (lumbar), and inguinal6 (iliac) regions. The three medial regions from upper to lower are the epigastric,7 umbilical, and hypogastric (pubic) regions.

4inter = between + tubercul = little swelling

5 hypo = below + chondr = cartilage

6inguin = groin

Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition

Upper extremity:

Acromial r.-

(shoulder) Axillary r. (armpit) Brachial r. (arm)

Cubital r. (elbow)

Antebrachial r. (forearm)

Carpal r. (wrist)

Lower extremity: Coxal r. (hip) Patellar r. (knee)

Pubis And Peniss
(a)

Cephalic r. (head)

Cervical r. (neck)

Thoracic r. (chest): Sternal r. Pectoral r.

Umbilical r.

Abdominal r. Inguinal r. (groin) Pubic r.: Mons pubis External genitalia Penis Scrotum Testes

Lower extremity: Femoral r. (thigh)

Plantar surface (sole)

Mons Pubis Sclerosis Calcaneal

Nuchal r. (back of neck)

Interscapular r. Scapular r.

Tarsal r. Calcaneal r. (heel)

Cranial r.

Nuchal r. (back of neck)

Interscapular r. Scapular r.

Vertebral r.

Lumbar r. Sacral r.

Gluteal r. (buttock)

Dorsum of hand Perineal r. Femoral r.

Popliteal r.

Crural r.

Tarsal r. Calcaneal r. (heel)

Cranial r.

Popliteal r.

Crural r.

Body Regions Saladin

Figure A.5 The Adult Female and Male Bodies. (a and fa) Ventral aspect (c and d) dorsal aspect (r. = region).

Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition

34 Part One Organization of the Body

Nine Regions The Abdomen

Figure A.6 Four Quadrants and Nine Regions of the Abdomen. (a) External division into four quadrants. (b) Internal anatomy correlated with the four quadrants.

Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition

Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy 35

Anatomy Abdomen Quadrants And Pubic AreaAbdomen Division

Figure A.6 Four Quadrants and Nine Regions of the Abdomen (continued). (c) External division into nine regions. (d) Internal anatomy correlated with the nine regions.

Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition

Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy

Text

© The McGraw-H Companies, 2003

36 Part One Organization of the Body

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Responses

  • richard larkin
    Is the axial region medial to the pectoral region?
    5 years ago
  • Kyllikki
    Is the dorsal in the axial region of the body?
    5 years ago
  • hanna-mari
    Where is the retropubic region?
    2 years ago

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