Bone Tissue

Tissues and Organs of the Skeletal System 218

  • Functions of the Skeleton 218
  • Bones and Osseous Tissue 218
  • The Shapes of Bones 218
  • General Features of Bones 219

Histology of Osseous Tissue 221

  • Cells 221
  • Matrix 221
  • Compact Bone 223
  • Spongy Bone 223
  • Bone Marrow 223

Bone Development 225

  • Intramembranous Ossification 225
  • Endochondral Ossification 226
  • Bone Growth and Remodeling 228

Physiology of Osseous Tissue 229

  • Mineral Deposition 230
  • Mineral Resorption 230
  • Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis 230
  • Other Factors Affecting Bone 234

Bone Disorders 234

  • Fractures and Their Repair 234
  • Other Bone Disorders 238

Chapter Review 240


Medical History: Bone Contamination 222 Clinical Application:

Achondroplastic Dwarfism 229 Clinical Application: Osseous Tissue and pH Balance 230 Clinical Application:

Osteoporosis 239

Brushing Up

To understand this chapter, it is important that you understand or brush up on the following concepts:

  • Histology of hyaline cartilage (p. 172)
  • Introduction to bone histology (p. 172)

Saladin: Anatomy & I 7. Bone Tissue I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

218 Part Two Support and Movement

In art and history, nothing has symbolized death more than a skull or skeleton.1 The dry bones presented for laboratory study suggest that the skeleton is an inert scaffold for the body, like the steel girders of a building. Seeing it in such a sanitized form makes it easy to forget that the living skeleton is made of dynamic tissues, full of cells—that it continually remodels itself and interacts physiologically with all of the other organ systems of the body. The skeleton is permeated with nerves and blood vessels, which attests to its sensitivity and metabolic activity. Osteology,2 the study of bone, is the subject of these next three chapters. In this chapter, we study bone as a tissue—its composition, its functions, how it develops and grows, how its metabolism is regulated, and some of its disorders. This will provide a basis for understanding the skeleton, joints, and muscles in the chapters that follow.

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