Burns Physiology

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Burns are the leading cause of accidental death. They are usually caused by fires, kitchen spills, or excessively hot bath water, but they also can be caused by sunlight, ionizing radiation, strong acids and bases, or electrical shock. Burn deaths result primarily from fluid loss, infection, and the toxic effects of eschar (ESS-car)—the burned, dead tissue.

Chapter 6 The Integumentary System 209

Chapter 6 The Integumentary System 209

Figure 6.12 Skin Cancer. (a) Basal cell carcinoma. (fa) Squamous cell carcinoma. (c) Malignant melanoma.

Which of the ABCD rules can you identify in figure c?

Figure 6.12 Skin Cancer. (a) Basal cell carcinoma. (fa) Squamous cell carcinoma. (c) Malignant melanoma.

Which of the ABCD rules can you identify in figure c?

35 lesio = injure

36carcin = cancer + oma = tumor

Saladin: Anatomy & 6. The Integumentary Text © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of System Companies, 2003

Form and Function, Third Edition

210 Part Two Support and Movement

Partial thickness

Full thickness

Burns And Abcd Rules

Third degree

Figure 6.13 Burns. (a) First-degree burn, involving only the epidermis. (b) Second-degree burn, involving the epidermis and part of the dermis. (c) Third-degree burn, extending through the entire dermis and often involving even deeper tissue.

Third degree

Figure 6.13 Burns. (a) First-degree burn, involving only the epidermis. (b) Second-degree burn, involving the epidermis and part of the dermis. (c) Third-degree burn, extending through the entire dermis and often involving even deeper tissue.

Burns are classified according to the depth of tissue involvement (fig. 6.13). First-degree burns involve only the epidermis and are marked by redness, slight edema, and pain. They heal in a few days and seldom leave scars. Most sunburns are first-degree burns.

Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis but leave at least some of the dermis intact. First- and second-degree burns are therefore also known as partial-thickness burns. A second-degree burn may be red, tan, or white and is blistered and very painful. It may take from 2 weeks to several months to heal and may leave scars. The epidermis regenerates by division of epithelial cells in the hair follicles and sweat glands and around the edges of the lesion. Some sunburns and many scalds are second-degree burns.

Insight 6.4 Clinical Application

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