Carbohydrates

A carbohydrate16 is a hydrophilic organic molecule with the general formula (CH2O)n, where n represents the number of carbon atoms. In glucose, for example, n = 6 and the formula is C6H12O6. As the generic formula shows, carbohydrates have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. The names of individual carbohydrates are often built on the word root sacchar- or the suffix -ose, both of which mean "sugar" or "sweet." The most familiar carbohydrates are sugars and starches.

1shydro = water + lysis = splitting apart

Saladin: Anatomy & I 2. The Chemistry of Life I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life 73

Dehydration synthesis

Dehydration synthesis

Dimer,

Dimer,

Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis

Figure 2.15 Synthesis and Hydrolysis Reactions. (a) In dehydration synthesis, a hydrogen atom is removed from one monomer and a hydroxyl group is removed from another. These combine to form water as a by-product. The monomers become joined by a covalent bond to form a dimer. (b) In hydrolysis, a covalent bond between two monomers is broken. Water donates a hydrogen atom to one monomer and a hydroxyl group to the other.

Figure 2.15 Synthesis and Hydrolysis Reactions. (a) In dehydration synthesis, a hydrogen atom is removed from one monomer and a hydroxyl group is removed from another. These combine to form water as a by-product. The monomers become joined by a covalent bond to form a dimer. (b) In hydrolysis, a covalent bond between two monomers is broken. Water donates a hydrogen atom to one monomer and a hydroxyl group to the other.

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