In cartilaginous joints, the two bones are bound to each other by cartilage. The two types of cartilaginous joints are synchondroses and symphyses, which involve hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage, respectively.
In a synchondrosis6 (SIN-con-DRO-sis), the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage. In children, the hyaline cartilage of the epiphyseal plate forms a synchondrosis that binds the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone together. The attachment of a rib to the sternum by a hyaline costal cartilage is also a synchondrosis (fig. 9.5a).
In a symphysis,7 two bones are joined by fibrocartilage (fig. 9.5b, c). One example is the pubic symphysis, in which the right and left pubic bones are joined by the cartilaginous interpubic disc. Another is the joint between the bodies of two vertebrae, united by an intervertebral disc. The surface of each vertebral body is covered with hyaline cartilage. Between the vertebrae, this cartilage becomes infiltrated with collagen bundles to form fibrocartilage. Each intervertebral disc permits only slight movement between adjacent vertebrae, but the collective effect of all 23 discs gives the spine considerable flexibility.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.