There are multiple ways of classifying bone fractures. A stress fracture is a break caused by abnormal trauma to a bone, such as fractures incurred in falls, athletics, and military combat. A pathologic fracture is a break in a bone weakened by some other disease, such as bone cancer or osteoporosis, usually caused by a stress that would not normally fracture a bone. Fractures are also classified according to the direction of the fracture line, whether or not the skin is broken, and whether a bone is merely cracked or broken into separate pieces (table 7.3; fig. 7.17).
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.