indicates ways in which this system affects other systems indicates ways in which other systems affect this one
Bones lying close to body surfaces shape the skin ^^ Initiates synthesis of vitamin D needed for bone deposition
Bones provide leverage and sites of attachment for muscles; provide calcium needed for muscle contraction ^^ Muscles move bones; stress produced by muscles affects patterns of ossification and remodeling, as well as shape of mature bones
Cranium and vertebral column protect brain and spinal cord; bones provide calcium needed for neural function ^- Sensory receptors provide sensations of body position and pain from bones and joints
Bones protect endocrine organs in head, chest, and pelvis ^^ Hormones regulate mineral deposition and resorption, bone growth, and skeletal mass and density
Myeloid tissue forms blood cells; bone matrix stores calcium needed for cardiac muscle activity ^^ Delivers O2, nutrients, and hormones to bone tissue and carries away wastes; delivers blood cells to marrow
Most types of blood cells produced in myeloid tissue function as part of immune system ^- Maintains balance of interstitial fluid in bones; lymphocytes assist in defense and repair of bones
Bones form respiratory passageway through nasal cavity; protect lungs and aid in ventilation ^^ Provides O2 and removes CO2
Skeleton physically supports and protects organs of urinary system ^- Kidneys activate vitamin D and regulate calcium and phosphate excretion
Skeleton provides bony protection for digestive organs ^^ Provides nutrients needed for bone growth and maintenance
Skeleton protects some reproductive organs ^- Gonads produce hormones that affect bone growth and closure of epiphyseal plates
Saladin: Anatomy & I 8. The Skeletal System I Text I © The McGraw-Hill
Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition
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