Other Nucleotides

Guanosine (GWAH-no-seen) triphosphate (GTP) is another nucleotide involved in energy transfers. In some reactions, it donates phosphate groups to other molecules. In some pathways, it donates its third phosphate group to ADP to regenerate ATP.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) (see fig. 2.29b) is a nucleotide formed by the removal of both the second and third phosphate groups from ATP. In some cases, when a hormone or other chemical signal ("first messenger") binds to a cell surface, it triggers an internal reaction that converts ATP to cAMP. The cAMP then acts as a "second messenger" to activate metabolic effects within the cell.

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