Percentage concentrations are also simple to compute, but it is necessary to specify whether the percentage refers to the weight or the volume of solute in a given volume of solution. For example, if we begin with 5 g of dextrose (an isomer of glucose) and add enough water to make 100 mL of solution, the resulting concentration will be 5% weight per volume (w/v). A common intravenous fluid is D5W, which stands for 5% w/v dextrose in distilled water. If the solute is a liquid, such as ethanol, percentages refer to volume of solute per volume of solution. Thus, 70 mL of ethanol diluted with water to 100 mL of solution produces 70% volume per volume (70% v/v) ethanol.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.