Earlier we considered the clinical importance of variations in human anatomy, but physiology is even more variable. Physiological variables differ with sex, age, weight, diet, degree of physical activity, and environment, among other things. Failure to consider such variation leads to medical mistakes such as overmedication of the elderly or medicating women on the basis of research that was done on men. If an introductory textbook states a typical human heart rate, blood pressure, red blood cell count, or body temperature, it is generally assumed that such values are for a healthy young adult unless otherwise stated. A point of reference for such general values is the reference man and reference woman. The reference man is defined as a healthy male 22 years old, weighing 70 kg (154 lb), living at a mean ambient (surrounding) temperature of 20°C, engaging in light physical activity, and consuming 2,800 kilocalories (kcal) per day. The reference woman is the same except for a weight of 58 kg (128 lb) and an intake of 2,000 kcal/day.
Saladin: Anatomy & I 1. Major Themes of I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill
Physiology: The Unity of Anatomy and Physiology Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition
Chapter 1 Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology 17
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.