Surface Features of Bones

Bone surfaces exhibit a variety of ridges, spines, bumps, depressions, canals, pores, slits, and articular surfaces. It is important to know the names of these surface markings because later descriptions of joints, muscle attachments, and the routes traveled by nerves and blood vessels are based on this terminology. The terms for the most common of these features are listed in table 8.2, and several of them are illustrated in figure 8.2.

The rest of this chapter is divided into four sections: (1) the skull, (2) the vertebral column and thoracic cage, (3) the pectoral girdle and upper limb, and (4) the pelvic girdle and lower limb. At the end of each section, you will find a review and checklist of skeletal features you should know (see tables 8.4, 8.6, 8.7, and 8.9). As you study this chapter, use yourself as a model. You can easily palpate (feel) many of the bones and some of their details through the skin. Rotate your forearm, cross your legs, palpate your skull, and think about what is happening beneath the surface or what you can feel through the skin. You will gain the most from this chapter (and indeed, the entire book) if you are conscious of your own body in relation to what you are studying.

Before You Go On

Answer the following questions to test your understanding of the preceding section:

  1. Name the major components of the axial skeleton. Name those of the appendicular skeleton.
  2. Explain why an adult does not have as many bones as a child does. Explain why one adult may have more bones than another adult of the same age has.
  3. Briefly describe each of the following bone features: a condyle, epicondyle, process, tubercle, fossa, sulcus, and foramen.

1 artic = joint

2sesam = sesame seed + oid = resembling 3Ole Worm (1588-1654), Danish physician

Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition

8. The Skeletal System


© The McGraw-H Companies, 2003

Chapter 8 The Skeletal System 245


Pectoral girdle

Thoracic cage

Frontal bone-

Zygomatic bone -Maxilla-

Mandible -

Sternum -Ribs-

Costal cartilages

Vertebral column Pelvic girdle-


Metacarpal -bones

Phalanges -

- Parietal bone --Temporal bone Occipital bone -


Clavicle -Scapula -

¿ 1»

  • rs > iL
  • Radius-

Patella -


Femur Bone

Os coxae


Femur -

Figure 8.1 The Adult Skeleton. (a) Anterior view; (b) posterior view. The appendicular skeleton is colored blue, and the rest is axial skeleton.

Os coxae


Femur -

Metatarsal bones

Phalanges Calcaneus

- Parietal bone --Temporal bone Occipital bone -

Clavicle -Scapula -

Metatarsal bones

Phalanges Calcaneus

Axial Bones Test

Figure 8.1 The Adult Skeleton. (a) Anterior view; (b) posterior view. The appendicular skeleton is colored blue, and the rest is axial skeleton.

Saladin: Anatomy & I 8. The Skeletal System I Text I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

246 Part Two Support and Movement

Table 8.1 Bones of the Adult Skeletal System

Axial Skeleton

Table 8.1 Bones of the Adult Skeletal System


Total 22

Auditory Ossicles

Total 6

Cranial bones

Malleus (2)

Frontal bone (1)

Incus (2)

Parietal bone (2)

Stapes (2)

Occipital bone (1)

Hyoid Bone (1)

Total 1

Temporal bone (2)

Vertebral Column

Total 26

Sphenoid bone (1)

Cervical vertebrae (7)

Ethmoid bone (1)

Thoracic vertebrae (12)

Facial bones

Lumbar vertebrae (5)

Maxilla (2)

Sacrum (1)

Palatine bone (2)

Coccyx (1)

Zygomatic bone (2)

Thoracic Cage

Total 25

Lacrimal bone (2)

Ribs (24)

Nasal bone (2)

Sternum (1)

Vomer (1)

Inferior nasal concha (2)

Mandible (1)

Appendicular Skeleton

Pectoral Girdle

Total 4

Pelvic Girdle

Total 2

Scapula (2)

Os coxae (2)

Clavicle (2)

Lower Limb

Total 60

Upper Limb

Total 60

Femur (2)

Humerus (2)

Patella (2)

Radius (2)

Tibia (2)

Ulna (2)

Fibula (2)

Carpals (16)

Tarsals (14)

Metacarpals (10)

Metatarsals (10)

Phalanges (28)

Phalanges (28)

Grand Total: 206

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  • antje
    What is the surface feature of the zygomatic bone?
    6 years ago

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