Genetics and Cellular Function
Chapter Review 152
Saladin: Anatomy & I 4. Genetics and Cellular I Text I © The McGraw-Hill
Physiology: The Unity of Function Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition
Some of the basic ideas of heredity have been known since antiquity, but a scientific understanding of how traits are passed from parent to offspring began with the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel (1822-84) and his famous experiments on garden peas. In the early twentieth century, the importance of Mendel's work was realized and chromosomes were first seen with the microscope. Cytogenetics now uses techniques of cytology and microscopy to study chromosomes and their relationship to hereditary traits. Molecular genetics uses the techniques of biochemistry to study the structure and function of DNA. In this chapter, we bring together some of the findings of molecular genetics, cytogenetics, and mendelian heredity to explore what the genes are, how they regulate cellular function, and how they are passed on when cells divide and people reproduce. A few basic concepts of heredity are introduced as a foundation for understanding concepts ranging from color blindness to blood types in the chapters that follow.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.