Testing Your Comprehension
- Schizophrenia is sometimes treated with drugs such as chlorpromazine that inhibit dopamine receptors. A side effect is that patients begin to develop muscle tremors, speech impairment, and other disorders similar to Parkinson disease. Explain.
- Hyperkalemia is an excess of potassium in the extracellular fluid. What effect would this have on the resting membrane potentials of the nervous system and on neuronal excitability?
- Suppose the Na+-K+ pumps of nerve cells were to slow down because of some metabolic disorder. How would this affect the resting membrane potentials of neurons? Would it make neurons more excitable than normal, or make them more difficult to stimulate? Explain.
- The unity of form and function is an important concept in understanding synapses. Give two structural reasons why nerve signals cannot travel backward across a chemical synapse. What might be the consequences if signals did travel freely in both directions?
- The local anesthetics tetracaine and procaine (Novocain) prevent voltage-regulated Na+ gates from opening. Explain why this would block the conduction of pain signals in a sensory nerve.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.
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