Testing Your Comprehension

  1. All second-class levers produce a mechanical advantage greater than 1.0 and all third-class levers produce a mechanical advantage less than 1.0. Explain why.
  2. Suppose a lever measures 17 cm from effort to fulcrum and 11 cm from resistance to fulcrum. (a) Calculate its mechanical advantage. (b) Would this lever produce more force, or less, than the force exerted on it? (c) Which of the three classes of levers could not have these measurements? Explain.
  3. In order of occurrence, list the joint actions (flexion, pronation, etc.) and the joints where they would occur as you (a) sit down at a table, (b) reach out and pick up an apple, (c) take a bite, and (d) chew it. Assume that you start in anatomical position.
  4. Suppose you were dissecting a cat or fetal pig with the task of finding examples of each type of synovial joint. Which type of human synovial joint would not be found in either of those animals? For lack of that joint, what human joint actions would those animals be unable to perform?
  5. List the six types of synovial joints and for each one, if possible, identify a joint in the upper limb and a joint in the lower limb that falls into each category. Which of these six joints have no examples in the lower limb?

Answers at the Online Learning Center

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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