The Muscular System

The Structural and Functional Organization of Muscles 326

  • The Functions of Muscles 326
  • Connective Tissues of a Muscle 326
  • General Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles 328
  • Coordinated Action of Muscle Groups 328
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Muscles 329
  • Muscle Innervation 329
  • How Muscles Are Named 330
  • A Learning Strategy 330

Muscles of the Head and Neck 330

  • Muscles of Facial Expression 330
  • Muscles of Chewing and Swallowing 335
  • Muscles Acting on the Head 343

Muscles of the Trunk 345

  • Muscles of Respiration 345
  • Muscles of the Abdomen 346
  • Muscles of the Back 347
  • Muscles of the Pelvic Floor 350

Muscles Acting on the Shoulder and Upper Limb 352

  • Muscles Acting on the Scapula 352
  • Muscles Acting on the Humerus 356
  • Muscles Acting on the Forearm 357
  • Muscles Acting on the Wrist and Hand 361

Muscles Acting on the Hip and Lower Limb 369

  • Muscles Acting on the Hip and Femur 369
  • Muscles Acting on the Knee 373
  • Muscles Acting on the Foot 374

Connective Issues 387 Chapter Review 388



Medical History: Discovery of a New Muscle 342

Clinical Application: Heavy Lifting and Back Injuries 349 Clinical Application: Hernias 351 Clinical Application: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 365 Clinical Application:

Intramuscular Injections 366 10.6 Clinical Application: Athletic Injuries 386





Brushing Up

To understand this chapter, it is important that you understand or brush up on the following concepts:

  • Gross anatomy of the skeleton (chapter 8)
  • Movements of synovial joints (pp. 302-307)

Saladin: Anatomy & I 10. The Muscular System I Text I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

326 Part Two Support and Movement

The muscular system consists of about 600 skeletal muscles-striated muscles that are usually attached to bone. (The term does not include smooth or cardiac muscle.) The form and function of the muscular system occupy a place of central importance in several fields of health care and fitness. Physical and occupational therapists must be well acquainted with the muscular system to design and carry out rehabilitation programs. Nurses and other health-care providers often move patients who are physically incapacitated, and to do this safely and effectively requires an understanding of joints and muscles. Even to give intramuscular injections safely requires a knowledge of the muscles and the nerves and blood vessels associated with them. Coaching, movement science, sports medicine, and dance benefit from a knowledge of skeleto-muscular anatomy and mechanics.

Myology,1 the study of muscles, is closely related to what we have covered in the preceding chapters. It relates muscle attachments to the bone structures described in chapter 8 and muscle function to the joint movements described in chapter 9. In this chapter, we consider the gross anatomy of the muscular system and how it relates to joint movements. In chapter 11, we examine the mechanisms of muscle contraction at the cellular and molecular levels.

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