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Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition_

Text

CHAPTER

Mitochondria (pink) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (green) in a liver cell (SEM)

CHAPTER OUTLINE

Concepts of Cellular Structure 94

  • Development of the Cell Theory 94
  • Cell Shapes and Sizes 94
  • General Cell Structure 96

The Cell Surface 98

  • The Plasma Membrane 98
  • The Glycocalyx 102
  • Microvilli, Cilia, and Flagella 103

Membrane Transport 106

  • Filtration 106
  • Simple Diffusion 106
  • Osmosis 107
  • Osmolarity and Tonicity 108
  • Carrier-Mediated Transport 109
  • Vesicular Transport 112

Cellular Form and Function

The Cytoplasm 115

  • Organelles 116
  • The Cytoskeleton 120
  • Inclusions 121

Chapter Review 125

INSIGHTS

  1. 1 Clinical Application: Calcium Channel Blockers 101
  2. 2 Clinical Application: Cystic Fibrosis 105
  3. 3 Clinical Application: Familial Hypercholesterolemia 113
  4. 4 Evolutionary Medicine: Mitochondria—Evolution and Clinical Significance 124

Brushing Up

To understand this chapter, it is important that you understand or brush up on the following concepts:

  • Glycolipids and glycoproteins (p. 75)
  • Phospholipids and their amphiphilic nature (p. 77)
  • Protein functions (p. 80)
  • The relationship of protein function to tertiary structure (p. 80)

Saladin: Anatomy & I 3. Cellular Form and I Text I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Function Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

94 Part One Organization of the Body

All organisms, from the simplest to the most complex, are composed of cells—whether the single cell of a bacterium or the trillions of cells that constitute the human body. These cells are responsible for all structural and functional properties of a living organism. Cytology,1 the study of cell structure and function, is therefore indispensable to any true understanding of the workings of the human body, the mechanisms of disease, and the rationale of therapy. Thus, this chapter and the next one introduce the basic cell biology of the human body, and subsequent chapters expand upon this information as we examine the specialized cellular functions of specific organs.

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