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Saladin: Anatomy & I 5. Histology

Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third


© The McGraw-H Companies, 2003

Saladin: Anatomy & I 5. Histology

Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third

Physiology Death

A cell undergoing apoptosis (programmed cell death) (TEM)




The Study of Tissues 158

  • The Primary Tissue Classes 158
  • Embryonic Tissues 158
  • Interpreting Tissue Sections 158

Epithelial Tissue 160

  • Simple Epithelia 161
  • Stratified Epithelia 161

Connective Tissue 166

  • Overview 166
  • Fibrous Connective Tissue 166
  • Cartilage 172
  • Bone 172
  • Blood 175

Nervous and Muscular Tissue—Excitable Tissues 175

  • Nervous Tissue 175
  • Muscular Tissue 175

Intercellular Junctions, Glands, and Membranes 178

  • Intercellular Junctions 178
  • Glands 179
  • Membranes 182

Tissue Growth, Development, Death, and Repair 183

  • Changes in Tissue Type 183
  • Tissue Growth 183
  • Tissue Shrinkage and Death 183
  • Tissue Repair 185

Chapter Review 187


  1. 1 Clinical Application: Marfan Syndrome—A Connective Tissue Disease 172
  2. 2 Clinical Application: Pemphigus Vulgaris—An Autoimmune Disease 179
  3. 3 Clinical Application: Keloids 185
  4. 4 Clinical Application: The Stem Cell Controversy 186

Brushing Up

To understand this chapter, it is important that you understand or brush up on the following concepts:

  • Body cavities and membranes (p. 36)
  • Glycoproteins and proteoglycans (p. 75)
  • Terminology of cell shapes (p. 94)
  • Secretory vesicles and exocytosis (p. 114)

Saladin: Anatomy & I 5. Histology I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

158 Part One Organization of the Body

With its 50 trillion cells and thousands of organs, the human body may seem to be a structure of forbidding complexity. Fortunately for our health, longevity, and self-understanding, the biologists of past generations were not discouraged by this complexity, but discovered patterns that made it more understandable. One of these patterns is the fact that these trillions of cells belong to only 200 different types or so, and these cells are organized into tissues that fall into just four broad categories— epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscular tissue.

An organ is a structure with discrete boundaries that is composed of two or more of these tissue types (usually all four). Organs derive their function not from their cells alone but from how the cells are organized into tissues. Cells are specialized for certain tasks—muscle contraction, defense, enzyme secretion, and so forth. No one cell type has the mechanisms to carry out all of the body's vital functions. Cells work together at certain tasks and form tissues that carry out a particular function, such as nerve signaling or nutrient digestion.

The study of tissues and how they are arranged into organs is called histology,1 or microscopic anatomy. That is the subject of this chapter. Here we study the four tissue classes; the variations within each class; how to recognize tissue types microscopically and relate their microscopic anatomy to their function; how tissues are arranged to form an organ; and how tissues change over the life of the individual as they grow, shrink, or change from one tissue type to another. Histology bridges the gap between the cytology of the preceding chapters and the organ system approach of the chapters that follow.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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