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The Online Learning Center provides a wealth of information fully organized and integrated by chapter. You will find practice quizzes, interactive activities, labeling exercises, flashcards, and much more that will complement your learning and understanding of anatomy and physiology.

Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third

Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third

Female Muscle Anatomy Movement

Vertebral column and ribs

CHAPTER

Lower Limb Anatomy Quizzes

Vertebral column and ribs

CHAPTER OUTLINE

The Skeletal System

Overview of the Skeleton 244

  • Bones of the Skeletal System 244
  • Surface Features of Bones 244

The Skull 246

  • Cranial Bones 248
  • Facial Bones 257
  • Bones Associated with the Skull 259
  • The Skull in Infancy and Childhood 260

The Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage 262

  • General Features of the Vertebral Column 262
  • General Structure of a Vertebra 264
  • Intervertebral Discs 264
  • Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae 265
  • The Thoracic Cage 268

The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb 270

  • Pectoral Girdle 271
  • Upper Limb 273

The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb 277

  • Pelvic Girdle 277
  • Lower Limb 280

Connective Issues 288 Chapter Review 289

INSIGHTS

Clinical Application: Injury to the Ethmoid Bone 257 Evolutionary Medicine:

Evolutionary Significance of the Palate 258

Clinical Application: Cranial Assessment of the Newborn 262 Clinical Application: Abnormal Spinal Curvatures 263 Evolutionary Medicine: Skeletal Adaptations for Bipedalism 286

Brushing Up

To understand this chapter, it is important that you understand or brush up on the following concepts:

  • Directional terminology (p. 31)
  • Body regions and cavities (pp. 32, 38)

Saladin: Anatomy & I 8. The Skeletal System I Text I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

244 Part Two Support and Movement

Knowledge of skeletal anatomy will be useful as you study later chapters. It provides a foundation for studying the gross anatomy of other organ systems because many organs are named for their relationships to nearby bones. The subclavian artery and vein, for example, are located beneath the clavicles; the temporalis muscle is attached to the temporal bone; the ulnar nerve and radial artery travel beside the ulna and radius of the forearm; and the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes of the brain are named for bones of the cranium. An understanding of how the muscles produce body movements also depends on knowledge of skeletal anatomy. Additionally, the positions, shapes, and processes of bones can serve as landmarks for a clinician in determining where to give an injection or record a pulse, what to look for in an X ray, or how to perform physical therapy and other medical procedures.

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