Multiple Births

Multiple gestation occurs frequently in pregnancy. The most common is twinning, which occurs in about one in every 80 pregnancies. There are two types of twins monozygous or identical and dizygous or fraternal. The monozygous twin rate is 1 in every 200 pregnancies. It results from a single ovulation with subsequent splitting of the developing egg within the first 14 days. There is no familial tendency. Dizygous twinning results from double ovulation and fertilization and is probably determined...

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The typical reduction sequence of limb reduction anomalies and scalp and skin defects are noted in this infant with Adams-Oliver syndrome. Figure 5.98. The typical reduction sequence of limb reduction anomalies and scalp and skin defects are noted in this infant with Adams-Oliver syndrome. Figure 5.101. The early amniotic rupture spectrum in an infant with a cervical meningomyelocele and an omphalocele. Note the amniotic band extending across the right shoulder. There was an...

The Placenta Its Membranes and the Umbilical Cord

Placental Hydrops

The human placenta is a highly sophisticated organ of interface between mother and fetus, often referred to as the gate-keeper to the fetus. Careful examination of the placenta, its membranes, and the umbilical cord can prove to be a valuable aid in the diagnosis and treatment of the neonate. Gross examination of the placenta takes five minutes, and more sophisticated examination should be considered when there is poor pregnancy outcome, recognizable malformations or abnormalities, multiple...

Foley Catheter For Infant

Foley Catheter For Infant

Discoloration with gangrene of the right buttock following umbilical artery catheter placement. Figure 7.43. Discoloration with gangrene of the right buttock following umbilical artery catheter placement. Figure 7.44. The same infant 10 days later showed marked improvement of the buttock. Figure 7.44. The same infant 10 days later showed marked improvement of the buttock. Figure 7.45. Gangrene of the left buttock following umbilical artery catherization. The umbilical artery...

Dubowitz Scoring System

Amiel Tyson Neurology

Completely Beginning of hypotonic flexion of thigh at hip 'Scarf sign complete with no resistance Upper limbs very hypotonic lying in extension Flexion of forearms begins to appear, but very weak Strong 'return to flexion.' Flexion tone inhibited if forearm maintained 30 seconds in extension Strong 'return to flexion.' Forearm returns very promptly to flexion after being extended for 30 seconds Passive tone. Increase of tone with maturity illustrated by means of six clinical tests. (From...

Effects of Maternal Medication

During pregnancy, the average fetus is exposed to four physician-prescribed and five self-prescribed drugs. Every drug administered or taken by a pregnant woman presents the mother with both risks and benefits. The risks include the drug's potential as a teratogen or as a cause of toxicity in the fetus. Most human teratogens affect the embryo during a very narrow period of early development as illustrated by the time (24 to 33 days gestation) during which the fetus is susceptible to limb...