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Figure 5.32. In breech presentation there may be a marked concavity of the inner aspect of the thigh. The lower extremities in a frank breech may lie up against the fetal abdomen causing a "position-of-comfort" deformity.

Figure 5.31. In this infant it appeared that there was a left wrist-drop and the diagnosis of radial palsy was considered. However, with stimulation the left hand moved normally and the postural deformity resolved completely in a few days.

Figure 5.32. In breech presentation there may be a marked concavity of the inner aspect of the thigh. The lower extremities in a frank breech may lie up against the fetal abdomen causing a "position-of-comfort" deformity.

Figure 5.33. The same infant showing its "position-of-comfort." A similar concavity of the inner aspect of the thighs may occur in infants who have lack of movement in utero.

Figure 5.34. Radiograph of an otherwise normal infant with the uncommon finding of bilateral bowing of the femora occurring as a result of a "position-of-comfort" deformity. Bowing of one or both tibiae in which they curve gently toward the midline may have the soles of the feet face each other. Femoral bowing is rare but is occasionally present in babies born after prolonged breech presentation. Congenital bowing of the forearm and humerus almost never occur. These tend to improve gradually as with all deformations.

Figure 5.35. Posterior view of an infant showing congenital postural scoliosis which occurred as a result of position in utero.

Figure 5.36. The same infant demonstrating the postural scoliosis. Postural scoliosis in the newborn is rare. If a true congenital scoliosis is present it is usually associated with a structural anomaly of the vertebral column.

Figure 5.35. Posterior view of an infant showing congenital postural scoliosis which occurred as a result of position in utero.

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Figure 5.37. This infant has a fairly common congenital postural deformity - genu recurvatum. This "position-of-comfort" deformity gives the impression that there is a dislocation at the knees. Note the hyper-extensibility at the knees and note that the creases on the thighs which are normally seen posteriorly are anteriorly placed.

Figure 5.38. The same infant with genu recurvatum in its "position-of-comfort." When it occurs, genu recurvatum ("back knee") is almost invariably associated with breech presentations and the incidence is much more common in females. The majority correct spontaneously; in severe cases posterior splinting may be necessary.

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