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Figure 5.57. Frontal view of another infant with arthrogryposis. Extreme intrauterine compression over an extended period of time can produce such severe distortion in multiple joints that supporting ligaments become contracted and opposing tendons stretch. The muscles acting across these joints may atrophy, creating a picture indistinguishable from the intrinsic forms of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

Figure 5.56. This infant with arthrogryposis demonstrates the severe congenital joint contractures. These occur as a result of lack of intrauterine movement and may be associated with muscle or neurologic pathology. Such severe contractures may be accompanied (or produced) by joint webbing (e.g., multiple pterygium syndrome or popliteal pterygium syndrome).

Figure 5.57. Frontal view of another infant with arthrogryposis. Extreme intrauterine compression over an extended period of time can produce such severe distortion in multiple joints that supporting ligaments become contracted and opposing tendons stretch. The muscles acting across these joints may atrophy, creating a picture indistinguishable from the intrinsic forms of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

Figure 5.58. Posterior view of the arthrogryposis in the same infant as in Figure 5.57.

Figure 5.59. This infant is an example of arthrogryposis with joint contractures involving the lower extremities only. The upper extremities were normal. This may occur in infants with neural tube defects, caudal regression syndrome and muscle disease.

Figure 5.59. This infant is an example of arthrogryposis with joint contractures involving the lower extremities only. The upper extremities were normal. This may occur in infants with neural tube defects, caudal regression syndrome and muscle disease.

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Figure 5.60. An infant with the caudal regression syndrome resulting in arthrogryposis. Note the marked underdevelopment of the hips and the webbing at the joints. There is also talipes calcaneovalgus.

Figure 5.60. An infant with the caudal regression syndrome resulting in arthrogryposis. Note the marked underdevelopment of the hips and the webbing at the joints. There is also talipes calcaneovalgus.

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