Prophylaxis and Treatment

Once ATRA syndrome has developed, addition of low-dose CT is ineffective in lowering WBC counts, and leukapheresis is unable to reverse symptoms. Two different approaches aimed at preventing or treating early ATRA syndrome are proposed. One of them, mainly used by the European and Japanese groups 33, 37,109 , consists of adding CT from the onset of ATRA in patients presenting with high WBC counts (WBC greater than 5,000 mm3 in the European trial, or greater than 3,000 mm3 in the Japanese...

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

The discovery that HDACs are involved in cancer, together with the knowledge that the activities of these enzymes could be inhibited by small molecules has prompted a great deal of research with the goal of the discovery of new drugs. Structurally, a wide variety of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) exist and can be Table 1 Structural groups of HDAC inhibitors Table 1 Structural groups of HDAC inhibitors Trichostatin A (TSA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) Butyrate, phenylbutyrate, valproic acid...

Cancer Epigenetics and Histone Acetylation

Although genetics have played a dominant role in cancer, in recent years the importance of epigenetic regulation of chromatin states through specific modifications to DNA or histones has become widely recognized 62, 284 . Thetermepigeneticisderived from theGreek forupon, epi,and canbeviewed as a secondary level of cellular information, in addition to the genomic DNA sequence, that maybe passed on during cell division. There are three conduits through which epigenetic information has thus far...