Surgical Applications of Real Virtuality

The author initiated research into biomodelling technology in 1991. Anatomics™ Pty Ltd ( was subsequently founded as a research and development company in 1996. This chapter will reflect the author's experience with over 600 patients where biomodelling technology has been applied in a broad range of applications. Such applications have been developed in cranio-maxillofacial surgery, neurosurgery, customized prosthetics, orthopaedics and other miscellaneous specialties. The breakdown of applications is listed in Table 3.1.

In general, biomodels were found to have five general applications. These were first identified in craniofacial surgery (D'Urso et al., 1998) but also apply as generic medical applications of the technology:

  • for surgical team communication, to educate patients and improve informed consent;
  • to assist surgeons with diagnosis and surgical planning;
  • for the rehearsal and simulation of surgery;
  • for the creation of customized prosthetics;
  • for the accurate placement of implants.
Table 3.1 Basal ganglia




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