Over the past 20 years, immunodiagnostic technologies have been developed to identify infectious agents with better sensitivity and specificity to ensure that every true-positive case is diagnosed. Antibody-based methods used to be the tool for the detection and epidemiological analysis of slow-growing, difficult-to-culture, uncultivatable, or emerging infectious agents.

Conventional ELISA has been the predominant technology used for such assays, with CLIA, ECL, and TRF detection formats becoming more promising technologies for automated antibody detection. Handheld assay and multiplexed flow cy-tometry methods are also emerging as the next generation of rapid laboratory-based technologies.

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