Tetracyclines are available in both oral and parenteral forms. Different tetra-cyclines have varying degrees of bioavailability when taken orally, and doxy-cycline is virtually completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is unaffected by food or milk intake. It distributes throughout the body and can cross the placenta in pregnant women. Tetracyclines can be excreted either in the bile or by the kidneys (they may thus require dose adjustments in renal impairment). Doxycycline is highly protein-bound, and the bulk of its excretion is in the bile.

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