Additional Reading

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute: Methods for antfc microbial dilution and disk susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria; M45, Villanova, Pa, CLSI.

von Graevenitz A, Zbinden R, Mutters R: Actinobacillus, Capno-cytophaga, Eikenella, Kingella, Pasteurella, and other fastidious or rarely encountered gram-negative rods. In Murray PRĀ» Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, et al, editors: Manual of clinicaa microbiology, ed 8, Washingtoa DC, 2003, ASM Press.

Zolvo JJ: Pasteurella species. In Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, editors: Principles and practice of infectious diseases, ed 6/ Philadelphia, 2005, Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.


Because these organisms do not generally pose a threat to human health, there are no recommended vaccination or prophylaxis protocols.

A cat lover of many years was bitten on her right thumb. Over the next few days the thumb became swollen and red and did not improve. She went to the emergency department where the wound was debrided and drained. She was started on ampicillin therapy. The culture grew Staphylococcus aureus at 24 hours but a small gram-negative rod was seen on the blood agar plate at 48 hours. The rod was unable to grow on MacConkey agar but was oxidase- and indole-positive and fermented a variety of sugars. It was identified by the laboratory's gram-negative identification system.


  1. What is the likely identification of this organism?
  2. Had this bite been of human origin, .what would be the most likely organism to cause an infection in the victim?
  3. What is the most likely antimicrobial agent used to treat Pasteurella multocida?
  4. The report of S. aureus isolated from this wound may be erroneous. Can you explain why?

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Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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