Chapter ty Specimen Management

In the late 1800s, the first clinical microbiology laboratories were organized to diagnose infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, typhoid fever, malaria, intestinal parasites, syphilis, gonorrhea, and diphtheria. Between 1860 and 1900, microbiologists such as Pasteur, Koch, and Gram developed the techniques for staining and the use of solid media for isolation of microorganisms that are still used in clinical laboratories today. Microbiologists continue to look for the same organisms that these laboratorians did, as well as a whole range of others that have been uncovered in the twentieth century, for example, Legionella, viral infections, nontuberculosis add-fast bacteria, and fungal infections. Microbiologists work in public health laboratories, hospital laboratories, reference or independent laboratories, and physidan office laboratories (POLs). Depending on the level of service of each facility, the type of testing differs, but in general a microbiologist will perform one or more of the following functions:

  • Cultivation (growth), identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms
  • Direct detection of infecting organisms by microscopy
  • Direct detection of specific products of infecting organisms using chemical, immunologic, or molecular techniques
  • Detection of antibodies produced by the patient in response to an infecting organism (sero-diagnosis)

This chapter presents an overview of issues involved in infectious disease diagnostic testing. Many of these issues are covered in detail in separate chapters, which are ated.

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Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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