Direct Visual Examination

All material submitted for culture should always be smeared and examined directly by Gram stain or Other appropriate techniques. In bacterial conjunctivitis, polymorphonuclear leukocytes predominate; in viral infection, the host cells are primarily lymphocytes and monocytes. Specimens in which chlamydia is suspected can be stained immediately with monoclonal antibody conjugated to fluorescein for detection of elementary bodies or inclusions. Using histologic stains, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are seen in epithelial cells. Cytologists and anatomic pathologists usually perform these tests. Direct examination of conjunctivitis specimens using histologic methods (Tzanck smear) may reveal multinucleated epithelial cells typical of herpes group viral infections. However, DFA stains available for both HSV and VZV are most reliable for rapid diagnosis of these viral infections. In patients with keratitis, scrapings are examined by Gram, Giemsa, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and methenamine silver stains. If Acanthamoeba or other amebae are suspected, a direct wet preparation should be examined for motile trophozoites, and a trichrome stain should be added to the regimen. For this diagnosis, however, culture is by far the most sensitive detection method. Inpatients with endophthalmitis, material is also examined by Gram, Giemsa, PAS, and methenamine silver stains. When submitted in large volumes of fluid, ophthalmic specimens must be concentrated by centrifugation before additional studies are performed.

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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