Epidemiology And Etiology Of Disease

Although difficult to access, the actual incidence of acute sinusitis parallels that of acute upper respiratory tract infections (i.e., being most prevalent in the fall through spring).

Most studies of the microbiology of acute sinusitis have dealt with maxillary sinusitis because it is the most common type and the only one really accessible for puncture and aspiration. Acute viral sinusitis is one of the most common causes of respiratory tract infection and in most cases resolves without treatment. However, published estimates indicate that 0.5% to 2% of cases of acute viral sinusitis in adults are complicated by bacterial sinusitis. This scenario is even more common in children.12 Bacteria] cultures are positive in about three fourths of patients. Studies over the past 2 decades have indicated that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the major bacterial pathogens in adults with acute sinusitis; other species such as beta-hemo-lytic and alpha-hemolytic streptococci. Staphylococcus aureus, and anaerobes have also been cultured but less frequendy.10

Among children, $. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis are most common.14 Rhinovirus is found in 15% of patients, influenza virus in 5%, parainfluenza virus in 3%, and adenovirus in less than 1 %. The major causes of acute sinusitis are summarized in Table 56-3. A wider variety of bacteria, particularly anaerobes, are

Table 56-3 Major Infectious Causes of Acute Sinusitis
Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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