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Figure 51-15, cont'd E, Herpes simplex virus. F, Measles virus. G, Negatively stained preparation of JC virus in brain tissue. (Cfrom Howard BJ, Klaas J, Rubin SJ, et al: Clinical and pathogenic microbiology, St Louis, 1987, Mosby; D and F from US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta; G courtesy Dr. Gabriele M. ZuRhein.)

Figure 51-15, cont'd E, Herpes simplex virus. F, Measles virus. G, Negatively stained preparation of JC virus in brain tissue. (Cfrom Howard BJ, Klaas J, Rubin SJ, et al: Clinical and pathogenic microbiology, St Louis, 1987, Mosby; D and F from US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta; G courtesy Dr. Gabriele M. ZuRhein.)

brane method uses a handheld reaction chamber with a cellulose-like membrane. Specimen and reagents are applied to the membrane. Following a short incubation time, a chromogenic (color) reaction occurs on the surface of the membrane and is read visually. Built-in controls on the same membrane provide convenient monitoring of test procedures. Figure 51-18 illustrates a membrane ELISA used to detect rotavirus. The most used enzyme immunoassays for antigen detection are those for RSV (solid-phase and membrane), rotavirus (solid-phase and membrane), and influenza viruses (membrane).

Advantages of enzyme immunoassays are the use of nonradioactive, relatively stable reagents and results that can be interpreted qualitatively (positive or negative) or quantitatively (titer or degree of positive reaction). It is important to note that enzyme immunoassays in specimens from children. Such pools are less sensitive when used with specimens from adults because of lower numbers of viral particles in the specimens.

Enzyme immunoassay methods used most in clinical virology are the solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (solid-phase ELISA) and the membrane bound enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (membrane ELISA). Solid-phase ELISA is performed in a small test tube or microtiter tray. Breakaway strips of micro-titer wells are available for low-volume test runs. The remaining, unused wells can be saved for future testing. A solid-phase ELISA used for the detection of rotavirus in stool specimens is illustrated in Figure 51-17. Membrane ELISA tests have been developed for low-volume testing and where rapid results are needed. They can be performed by those with minimum training and usually require less than 30 minutes to complete. The mem a

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Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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