Virulence Factors

Spectrum of Disease and Infections

"Achromobacter" group


Rarely Isolated from humans. Patients with septicemia have been reported

Rhizobium radiobacter

Unknown. One blood Isolate described as mucoid, suggestive of exopolysaccharide capsule production

Exposure of immunocompromised or debilitated patient to contaminated 1 medical devices resulting in bacteremia, and less commonly, peritonitis, endocarditis, or urinary tract infection 1

CDC group EF-4b


Infected bite wounds of fingers, hands, or arm leading to cellulitis or abscess formation. Systemic infections are rare



No infections described in humans. Rarely encountered in clinical specimens

Psychrobacter immobilis


Rare cause of infection in humans. Has been described in wound and catheter ate infections, meningitis, and eye infections

CDC group 0FBA-1


Rarely isolated from clinical specimens; found in blood, respiratory, wound, and catheter specimens

Ochrobactrum anthropi

Unknown. Exhibits ability to adhere to silicone catheter material in a manner similar to staphylococci

Catheter and foreign body-associated bacteremia. May also cause pyogenic infections, community-acquired wound infections, and meningitis in tissue graft recipients. Patients are usually Immunocompromised or otherwise debilitated

Alcaligens xylosoxidans


Rare cause of human infection

Shewanella putrefaciens


Clinical significance uncertain; often found in mixed cultures. Has been Implicated in cellulites, otitis media, and septicemia; also may be found In respiratory tract, urine, feces and pleural fluid

peritonitis, endocarditis, meningitis, urinary tract, and pyogenic infections are much less commonly encoun-tered.2'5,6 Cellulitis and abscess formation typify the infections resulting from the traumatic introduction of CDC group EF-4b into the skin and subcutaneous tissue.

Although other species listed in Table 25-2 may be encountered in clinical specimens, their association with human infection is rare and their clinical significance in such encounters should be carefully analyzed.

hgui 25-1 Paracoccusyeei; note doughnut-shaped organism on .Grain stain (arrows).

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Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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