detect antibody to both HIV-l and HIV-2. Confirmation of the ELISA screening test is accomplished with an HIV-1-specific Western blot test or with an ELISA test for HIV-2 followed by an HIV-2-specific Western blot test Recently infected patients who have not seroconverted or newborn babies with maternal antibody can be identified as HIV infected using sensitive RT-PCR assays. HTV infection is monitored in those receiving antiviral therapy using quantitative molecular testing with serum specimens. Successful antiviral therapy should redu the HIV serum viral load to undetectable levels.
Blood for transfusion is screened for antibody indicative of HIV-l and HIV-2, and HTLV-1 and HTLV-? infection. HTLV-1 ELISA screening tests detect antibody to both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. In addition, an HIV antigen (p24) test is performed to detect donors who may be recendy infected and have not produced HIV antibody*
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