Laboratory Diagnosis

The laboratory diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infections is accomplished by cell culture, serology, or nucleic add.14

Direct Detection Methods. To date, assays to direcdy detect C. pneumoniae antigens have poor sensitivity. A variety of nudeic add amplification assays induding conventional and real-time PCR assays have been developed to detect C. pneumoniae nudeic add sequences in clinical specimens. Several of these amplification assays are commerdally available. Using these methods, the organism has been detected in throat swabs and other specimens, such as nasopharyngeal, broncho-alveolar lavage fluids, and sputum.

  1. Specimens for isolation are usually swabs of the oropharynx; techniques for isolation from sputum are unsatisfactory. Swabs should be placed into chlamydial transport media, transported on ice, and stored at 4° C; organisms are rapidly inactivated at room temperature or by rapid freezing or thawing. A cell culture procedure similar to that used for C. trachomatis but using the more sensitive HL or Hep-2 cell lines must be substituted for McCoy cells. Multiple blind passages might be necessary to improve recovery rates. C. pneumoniae species-specific monoclonal antibodies can detect the organism in cell culture.
  2. Diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection can also be achieved by serology. However, serologic testing has had variable success and questionable validity. Complement fixation using a genus-specific antigen has been used, but it is not specific for G pneumoniae. A microimmunofluorescence test using C. pneumoniae elementary bodies as antigen is more reliable but available only in specialized laboratories. A fourfold rise in either IgG or IgM is diagnostic, and a single IgM titer of 16 or greater or an IgG titer of 512 or greater is suggestive of recent infection. Commercial kits for diagnosing C. pneumoniae are not available yet because of the difficulty in developing species-specific detection methods.
Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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