Larynaotracheobronchitis

Another clinical syndrome closely related to laryngitis is acute laryngotracheobronchitis, or croup. Croup is a relatively common illness in young children, primarily those younger than 3 years of age. Of significance, croup can represent a potentially more serious disease if the infection extends downward from the larynx to involve the trachea or even the bronchi. Illness is charactenzed by variable fever, inspiratory stridor (difficulty in moving enough air through the larynx), hoarseness, and a harsh, barking, nonproductive cough. These symptoms last for 3 to 4 days, although the cough may persist for a longer period. In young infants, severe respiratory distress and fever are common symptoms.

Similar to the etiologic agents of laryngitis, viruses are a primary cause of croup; parainfluenza viruses are the major etiologic agents. In addition to parainfluenza viruses, influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenoviruses can also cause croup. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, rhinoviruses, and enteroviruses can cause a few cases as well

SSSS is an infection of the epiglottis and other soft tissues above the vocal cords. Infection of the epiglottis can lead to significant edema (swelling) and inflammation. Most commonly, children between the ages oU and 6 years of age are infected. These children typically present with fever, difficulty in swallowing because: or pain, drooling, and respiratory obstruction with inspiratory stridor. Epiglottitis is a potentially life-threatenmg disease because the patient's airway can become com pletely obstructed (blocked) if not treated.

Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)

Nasopharynx

Palatine tonsil Oropharynx

Epiglottis Laryngopharynx

Lingual tonsil

Vocal cords Esophagus -

Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)

Nasopharynx

Palatine tonsil Oropharynx

Epiglottis Laryngopharynx

Lingual tonsil

Vocal cords Esophagus -

Figure 54-1 The pharynx, including its three divisions and nearby structures.

In contrast to laryngitis, epiglottitis is usually caused by bacteria. In the past, 2- to 4-year-old children were typically infected with Hämophilus influenzae type b as the primary cause of epiglottitis. However, as the use of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugated vaccine increases, the typical padent is becoming an adult with sore throat. Other organisms occasionally implicated are streptococci and staphylococci. Diagnosis is established on clinical grounds, including the visualization of the epiglottis, which appears swollen and bright red in color. Bacteriologic culture of the epiglottis is contraindicated because swabbing of the epiglottis may lead to respiratory obstruction. Of importance, H. influenzae bacteremia usually occurs in children with epiglottitis caused by this organism.

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Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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