Other less frequently isolated agents are other gramnegative bacilli, such as Acinetobacter and Alcaligenes spp., other Pseudomonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, Aerococcus urinae, and beta-hemolytic streptococci. Bacteria such as mycobacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis.

Ureaplasma urealyticum, Campylobacter spp,, Haemophilus influenzae, Leptospira, and certain Corynebacterium spp. (e.g., C. renale) are rarely recovered from urine. Because renal transplant recipients are immunosuppressed, these patients not only suffer from common uropathogens but are also susceptible to opportunistic infections with unusual pathogens.4 Of note, a recent study involving renal transplant recipients showed that for culture-negative urine, amplification of regions in bacterial 16S rRNA and subsequent analysis by a type of high-performance liquid chromatography detected the presence of a number of known uropathogens as well as unusual agents. Salmonella spp. may be recovered during the early stages of typhoid fever; their presence should be immediately reported to the physician. If anaerobes are suspected, the physician should perform a percutaneous bladder tap unless urine can be obtained from the upper urinary tract by another means (e.g., from a nephrostomy tube). Communication by the clinician to the laboratory that such an agent is suspected is most important for detecting such agents. However, the laboratory can exert some initiative as well, hi patients with "sterile pyuria," Gram stain may reveal unusual organisms with distinctive morphology (e.g., H. influenzae, anaerobes). The presence of any organisms on smear that do not grow in culture is an important clue to the cause of the infection. The laboratory can then take the action necessary to optimize chances for recovery.

In general, viruses and parasites are not usually considered urinary tract pathogens. Trichomonas vaginalis may occasionally be observed in urinary sediment, and Schistosoma haematobium can lodge in the urinary tract and release eggs into the urine. Adenoviruses types 11 and 21 have been implicated as causative agents in hemorrhagic cystitis in children.

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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