. What further biochemical testing would you perform?

  1. What additional test should always be performed from staphylococci that are FYR-positive from blood cultures?
  2. Susceptibility testing for the penicillinase-resistant penicillins is problematic for coagulase-negative staphylococci, because they can be heteroresistant and express resistance poorly in vitro. This characteristic makes testing in the laboratory difficult, leading to reports of false susceptibility. What is the only reported mechanism of resistance to these agents?
  3. Because of the difficulties in expression of the meek gene product in staphylococci, studies have been done to determine which antimicrobial agent best induces the microorganism to produce PBP2a. After extensive studies with many challenge strains, which antimicrobial agent was found to best predict the susceptibility or resistance to the penidllinase-resistant penicillins?
  4. Bannerman TL: Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and other cataiase-positive cocci that grow aerobically. In Murray PR, Baron RJ, Pfaller MA, et al, editors: Manual of clinical microbiology, ed 8, Washington, DC, 2003, ASM Press.
  5. Behme RJ, Shuttleworth R, McNabb A et al: Identification of staphylococci with a self-educating system using fatty acid analysis and biochemical tests (published erratum appears in J Clin Microbiol 35:1043, 1997), J Clin Microbiol 34:2267, 1996.

-3, Hébert GA: Hemolysin and other characteristics that help differentiate and biotype Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus schleiftri. J Clin Microbiol 28:2425,1990. Hébert GA Crowder CG, Hancock GA, et al: Characteristics of coagulase-negative staphylococci that help differentiate these species and other members of the family Micrococcaceae, J Clin Microbiol 26:1939, 1988.

5. Isaac DW, Pearson TA Hurwitz CA, et al: Clinical and microbiologic aspects of Staphylococcus haemofyticus infections, Pediatr InféaJ 12:1018, 1993.

Kloos WE, Ballard DN, Webster JA et al: Ribotype delineation and description of Staphylococcus sciuri subspecies and their potential as reservoirs of methidllin resistance and staphylolytic enzyme genes, Int J Syst Bactmol 47:313,1997.

7 Kloos WE, Bannerman TL: Update on clinical significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Clin Microbiol Rev 7:117,1994.

8. Kloos WE, George CG, Olgiate JS, et al: Staphylococcus hominis subsp novobiosepiicus subsp nov, a novel trehalose- and N-acetyl-

D-glucosamine-negative, novobiocin- and multiple-antlbiotic-resistant subspecies isolated from human blood cultures, Int J Syst Bacterial 48:799,1998 9. Kloos WE, Schleifer KH: Simplified scheme for routine identification of human Staphylococcus species, J Clin Microbiol 1:82, 1975.

  1. Kloos WE, Wolfshohl JF: Identification of Staphylococcus spedes with API STAPH-IDENT System, J Clin Microbiol 16:509,1982.
  2. Koch C, Schumann P, Stadcerbrandt E: Reclassification ol Micrococcus agilis (Ali-Cohen, 1889) to the genus Arthrobader as Arthro-bacter agilis comb nov and emendation of the genus Arthrobacter, bit J Syst Baderwl 45:837, 1995.
  3. Koontz F: Is there a clinical necessity to identify coagulase-negative staphylococd to the spedes level? "Okay, so I was wrong!" Clin Microbiol Newsletter 20:78,1998.
  4. Lyytikainen O, Vaara M, Jaarviluoma E, et al: Increased resistance among Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates in a large teaching hospital over a 12-year period, Bur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15:133, 1996.
  5. Mulligan ME, Murray-Leisure KA. Ribner BS, et at Methidllin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a consensus review of the microbiology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology with implications for prevention and management. Am J Med 94:313,1993.
  6. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards: Abbreviated identification of bacteria and yeast; approved guideline M35-A Wayne, Pa, 2002, NCCLS.
  7. Roberson JR, Fox LK, Hancock DD, et al: Evaluation of methods for differentiation of coagulase-positive staphylococd, J Clin Microbiol 30:3217,1992.
  8. Schleifer KH: Gram-positive cocci. In Sneath PH, Mair NS, Sharpe ME, et al, editors: Bergty's manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 2, Baltimore, 1986, Williams and Wilkins.
  9. Schumann P, Spröer C, Buighardt J, et al: Reclassification of the speries Kocuria erythromyxa (Brooks and Murray, 1981) as Kocuria rosea (Flügge, 1886), Int J Syst Bacterial 49:393,1999.
  10. Stackerbrandt E, Koch C, Gvozdiak 0, et al: Taxonomic dissection of the genus Micrococcus: Kocuria gen nov Nesterenkonia gen nov, Kytococcus gen nov, Dermacoccus gen nov, and Micrococcus (Cohn, 1872) gen emend. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:682,1995.
  11. Vandenesch F, Etienne J, Reverdy ME et al: Endocarditis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis: report of 11 cases and review, Clin Infect Dis 17:871,1993.
  12. von Biff C, Herrmann M, Peters G: Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Stomatococcus mudlaginosus and of Micrococcus spp, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39:268,1995.
  13. Woolford N, Johnson AP, Moirison D, et al: Current perspectives on gtycopeptide resistance, Clin Microbiol Rev 8:585, 1995.

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Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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