Modified Elispot

Modifications of the Elispot Assay for T Cell Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Trials Laboratory of Cell-Mediated Immunity, Clinical Services Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD, USA Abstract The use of the IFN-y ELISPOT assay to evaluate cellular immune responses has gained increasing popularity, especially as a surrogate measure for CTL responses. We developed and validated some modifications of the IFN-y ELISPOT assay to optimize immunological...

Mechanisms Underlying The Lack Of Correlation Between Clinical And Immune Responses

To date, a large number of TA-specific immunotherapy trials have been conducted in patients with malignant disease. It is clear from these studies that the various types of tumor vaccines i) have limited or no toxicity and ii) are able to induce TA-specific immune responses and or augment already established TA-specific immune responses in immunized patients. Nevertheless, the results of these studies have highlighted two challenges facing tumor immunologists and clinical oncologists. The first...

Antigenic changes on malignant cells

Tumor cells can evade the host's immune response by being poor stimulators of T cells or being poor targets for effector CTL. Because of their genetic instability (24), malignant cells may change in the expression of molecules such as TA, HLA class I antigens as well as APM components, each of which plays a crucial role in the generation of the HLA class I antigen-TA peptide complex (20,21). The latter mediates the recognition of tumor cells by the host's CTL. Abnormalities in TA expression as...

Novel Method To Identify Tumorreactive T Cells Cd107 Mobilization

We developed a novel method to isolate pure, viable populations of tumor-cytolytic T cells directly ex vivo from patient blood samples using flow cytometric quantification of the surface mobilization of CD 107 - an integral membrane protein within cytolytic granules - as a marker for degranulation upon tumor stimulation (26). We showed that tumor-cytolytic T cells are indeed elicited in patients post-cancer vaccination, and that tumor-reactivity is strongly correlated with recognition...