Nuclear inclusions also form as sites of herpesvirus assembly The assemblon

A second prominent nuclear inclusion induced by herpesvirus infection is the assemblon (Ward et al., 1996b). This is the site where capsid proteins accumulate and assemble into nucleocapsids (Fig. 8B). The assembly of herpesvirus nucleocapsids has been researched in great detail at the ultrastructural level facilitated by a cell-free system for reconstituting the particles (Heymann et al., 2003 Newcomb et al., 1994,1996). The mature herpesvirus capsid is icosahedral with a T 16 symmetry and is...

Management Of Virus Infections

Viral disease outbreaks as well as inapparent viral infections can seriously affect the profitability of the beekeeping industry. Beekeepers are advised to take measures to limit viral infections, although as with any other animal and plant viruses, chemotherapies for killing bee viruses are currently not possible. An integrated pest management program for bee diseases caused by viruses should include at least the following three components (1) accurate diagnosis of diseases that allows rapid...

Herpesvirus replication generates inclusions in the nucleus

Herpesviruses enter the cell by fusing their envelopes with the plasma membrane, whereon the naked nucleocapsids migrate to nuclear pores, possibly along microtubules (Granzow et al., 1997 Sodeik et al., 1997) reviewed by Smith and Enquist (2002) . Nuclear inclusions housing herpesvirus DNA replication are globular and can occupy the majority of the nucleus (de Bruyn Kops and Knipe, 1988 Randall and Dinwoodie, 1986 Taylor et al., 2003). They are identified through the presence of the viral...

Nonhuman primate models

Even though mouse models have provided critical insights into the pathogenesis of influenza, the information gained from these studies is limited since mice are not natural hosts for the virus. For this reason, data obtained from mouse studies can be difficult to translate to human infection. Numerous studies have utilized nonhuman primate models to study influenza pathogenesis (Berendt, 1974 Grizzard et al., 1978 Liu et al., 1997 Rimmelzwaan et al., 2001 van Riel et al., 2006). Unlike mouse...

Transmission Modes

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that can only multiply inside living host cells utilizing the host cell's metabolic machinery. In order to survive, viruses must have ways to invade hosts and be transmitted from one host to another. Transmission processes determine the persistence and the spread of viruses in a population. In theory, transmission of a virus can occur horizontally or vertically, or both. In horizontal transmission, viruses are transmitted between different...

Cytoplasmic inclusions form during late stages of herpesvirus tegumentation The cytoplasmic assembly compartment

The tegument layer of alphaherpesviruses is composed of at least 15 different proteins (Mettenleiter, 2002). US11, UL17, UL47, UL48, and UL49 are components of the tegument, and all are localized to the nucleus (if not exclusively) during the productive life cycle of the virus (Fuchs et al., 2002 Hutchinson et al., 2002 Kopp et al., 2002 Roller and Roizman, 1992 Taus et al., 1998). UL48 may play a role in egress from the nucleus, though this has not been unequivocally established (Mossman et...

References

Characterisation and serological relationships of strains of Kashmir bee virus. Ann. Appl. Biol. 126 471-484. Allen, M., and Ball, B. (1996). The incidence and world distribution of honey bee viruses. Bee World 77 141-162. Allen, M., Ball, B., White, R. F., and Antoniw, J. F. (1986). The detection of acute paralysis virus in Varroa jacobsoni by the use of a simple indirect ELISA. J. Apic. Res. 25 100-105. Anderson, D. L. (1984). A comparison of serological...

Cellular immune response

Although the physical and chemical barriers usually keep pathogens from entering the body, pathogens occasionally break through these defenses and begin to multiply. Whenever physical and chemical barriers are breached, honey bees can actively protect themselves from infection by employing an innate immunity response which represents a second line of defense and occurs immediately on infection. The primary goal of the immune system is the recognition of pathogens and differentiation of nonself...